Skip to main content

Full text of "USCD p-System Part Two"

See other formats



Editor 
• Filer 



Utilities 



Part Two: UCSD p-System Filer 




*UCSD p-System is 8 trademark of the Regents of the 
University of California. 



1041570-1 
[Part B] 



& 



& 



* 



M 



& 



$F 






Editor 
• Filer 



Utilities 



Part Two: UCSD p-System Filer 



*UCSD p-System is a trademark of the Regents of the 
University of California. 



Copyright \ 1 981 . Texas Instruments Incorporated 
See important warranty information at back of book. 



This manual was developed by staff members of the Texas Instruments Education and 
Communications Center. 



This software is copyrighted 1979, 1981 by the Regents of the University of 
California, SofTech Microsystems, Inc., Texas Instruments Incorporated, and other 
copyright holders as identified in the program code. No license to copy this software 
is conveyed with this product. Additional copies for use on additional machines are 
available through Texas Instruments Incorporated. No copies of the software other 
than those provided for in Title 17 of the United States Code are authorized by Texas 
Instruments Incorporated. 



UCSD Pascal and UCSD p-System are trademarks of the Regents of the University of 
California. Item involved met its quality assurance standards applicable to Version 
IV.O. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



GENERAL INFORMATION 

1.1 Using This Manual 6 

1.2 Set-Up Instructions 7 

1.3 Special Keys 8 

FILES 

2.1 Filenames 9 

2.2 System Files 10 

2.2.1 Built-in System Files 11 

2.2.2 Optional System Files 12 

2.3 User Files 12 

2.3.1 .TEXT Files 13 

2.3.2 .BACK Files 13 

2.3.3 .CODE Files 14 

2.3.4 .DATA Files 14 

2.3.5 .BAD Files 14 

2.4 The Workfile 15 

DEVICES 

3.1 Device Structure 16 

3.2 Device Identification 16 

3.2.1 CONSOLE: and SYSTERM: 17 

3.2.2 Disks 17 

3.2.3 PRINTER:, REM IN:, and REMOUT: 18 

3.2.4 OS: 19 

3.2.5 TAPE: 19 

3.2.6 TP: 19 

USING THE FILER 

4.1 Yes/No Prompts 21 

4.2 Volume ID's and File Specifications 21 

4.2.1 Filename Lists 22 

4.2.2 Wildcards 22 



FILER 

Page 3 



FILER COMMANDS 

5.1 B(ad-blks 25 

5.2 C(hng 27 

5.2.1 C(hng with Wildcards 27 

5.2.2 Changing Volume Names 29 

5.3 D(ate 30 

5.4 E(xt-dir 31 

5.5 G(et 32 

5.6 K(rnch 34 

5.7 L(dir 35 

5.7.1 L(dir with Wildcards 36 

5.7.2 Redirecting L(dir Output 36 

5.8 M(ake 37 

5.9 N(ew 38 

5.10 P(refix 39 

5.11 Q(uit 40 

5.12 R(em 41 

5.12.1 R(em with Wildcards 42 

5.13 S(ave 43 

5.14 T(rans 44 

5.14.1 Transferring Files to Output Devices 46 

5.14.2 T(rans with Wildcards 46 

5.14.3 Transferring Volumes 47 

5.15 V(ols 48 

5.16 W(hat 49 

5.17 X(amine 50 

5.18 Z(ero 52 

RECOVERING LOST DATA 

6.1 Lost Files 54 

6.2 Lost Directories 56 

IN CASE OF DIFFICULTY 58 

WARRANTY 59 



FILER 

Page 4 



SECTION 1: GENERAL INFORMATION 



The UCSD p-System* Filer provides commands that allow you to perform a variety of 
file and device operations. All programs and data are stored by the System in the 
form of files, and each file resides in a device; therefore, easy manipulation of files 
and devices is critical to the successful utilization of the p-System. The Filer's 
powerful features give you the necessary flexibility to perform the operations you 
want with a minimum of effort. 

With the Filer, you can: 

■ Load, save, erase, and determine the status of the workfile. 

• Create, copy, and delete files. 

■ Determine what peripheral devices are attached to the computer. 

■ Determine the names, locations, and sizes of disk files and rearrange them to 
maximize use of available disk memory. 

• Examine diskettes that appear to be damaged and attempt to isolate and 
correct problems. 

• Change the System date, the default prefix, and the names of files and disk 
volumes. 

In addition to the TI Home Computer and a TI Color Monitor (or a TI Video 
Modulator and a television set), the Filer requires the use of the TI Memory 
Expansion unit, the TI P-Code peripheral, and the TI Disk Memory System (a TI Disk 
Drive Controller and one to three TI Disk Memory Drives). 

After the Filer has been loaded, a promptline showing the Filer commands appears at 
the top of the screen. The Filer commands, which are accessed by a single 
keystroke, are the communication interface for interacting with the various Filer 
functions. Pressing a key causes either an action to be performed or a prompt to be 
displayed, requesting you to enter the information necessary for the Filer to perform 
its functions. 



^trademark of the Regents of the University of California 



FILER 

Page 5 



GENERAL INFORMATION 



1.1 USING THIS MANUAL 

This manual is designed both as an introduction to the Filer and as a reference 
document after you are familiar with the Filer. Section 1 is an introduction to the 
Filer, providing set-up instructions and discussing special keys used by the System. 
Section 2 introduces the concept of files and explains how the various types of files 
are treated by the System. Section 3 details the System's use of volumes and 
devices, with particular attention to the use of the diskette, which is the primary 
medium of program and data storage. Section 4 provides general instructions for the 
use of the Filer, including an introduction to the concept of "wildcards," a powerful 
method of referencing multiple files and devices. Section 5 explains each of the 
Filer commands in alphabetical order, according to the letter you press to access 
them. Section 6 offers advice on attempting to recover data that appears to have 
been accidentally lost or destroyed. The remainder of the manual contains service 
and warranty information. 



FILER 

Page 6 



GENERAL INFORMATION 



1.2 SET-UP INSTRUCTIONS 

The steps involved in accessing the Filer are included in this section. Please read 
this material completely before proceeding. 

1. Be sure that the Memory Expansion unit, the P-Code peripheral, and the Disk 
Memory System are attached to the computer and turned on. (Refer to the 
appropriate owner's manual for product details.) 

2. Insert the Filer diskette into a disk drive. 

3. Turn on the monitor and computer console. The p-System promptline now 
appears. (Note: If you turn on the computer before inserting a diskette in a 
disk drive, you must insert a diskette and then press I to initialize the System 
before you can proceed.) 

4. Press F for F(ile to load the Filer. 

5. After the Filer is loaded, the screen displays the Filer promptline, a list of the 
commands available with the Filer. Refer to Section 5 for an explanation of 
the Filer commands. 



FILER 

Page 7 



GENERAL INFORMATION 



1.3 SPECIAL KEYS 



A color-coded keyboard overlay for the TI-99/4 console and a two-level strip overlay 
for the TI-99/4A console are included with the P-Code peripheral to help you more 
easily identify certain keys that are used with the p-System. On the TI-99/4 console, 
certain keys are used in combination with the SHIFT and SPACE keys; while on the 
TI-99/4A console, certain keys are used in combination with the FCTN and CTRL 
keys. Note that, as you read the manual and use the Filer, the < and > symbols 
indicate function keys to be pressed and not information to be typed. For your 
convenience, the function keys available with the Filer are summarized here. 



Name 



TI-99/4 



TI-99/4A Action 



<flush> 



<break> 



<stop> 



<line del> 



SPACE 3 



SPACE 4 



SPACE 5 



<alpha lock> SPACE 6 



<screen left> SPACE 7 



<screen right> SPACE 8 



SHIFT Z 



{ SPACE 1 

} SPACE 2 

[ SPACE 9 

] SPACE 

<left-arrow> or SHIFT S 

<backspace> 

<return> ENTER 



FCTN 3 Acts as a toggle to suspend and restart 

output to the display. 
FCTN 4 Stops the program so that the System can 

be re-initialized. 
FCTN 5 Acts as a toggle to suspend and continue 

the program. 
FCTN 6 Acts as a toggle to convert lower-case 

letter input to upper-case and back again.* 
FCTN 7 Moves the displayed text to the left 20 

columns at a time. 
FCTN 8 Moves the displayed text to the right 20 

columns at a time. 
FCTN 9 Erases your response to the current 

prompt. 
FCTN F Types the left brace {. 

FCTN G Types the right brace }. 
FCTN R Types the left bracket [. 
FCTN T Types the right bracket ]. 

FCTN S Moves the cursor to the left one 

character and erases that character. 
ENTER Tells the computer to accept the 

information you type. 



*Note that, with the TI-99/4A console, you can press <alpha lock> to select 
lower-case characters (the default mode when the computer is turned on) and can 
then press the SHIFT or ALPHA LOCK key on the keyboard to select upper-case 
characters. With the TI-99/4 console, pressing <alpha lock> is the only toggle 
available for converting from lower-case letters to upper-case and back again. 



FILER 

Page 8 



GENERAL INFORMATION 



SECTION 2: FILES 



To the UCSD p-System, a "file" is a collection of information, usually stored on a 
diskette. A file may contain: 

• Program statements, in Pascal or some other language, to be compiled or 
assembled by the computer. 

• A program ready to be executed by the computer. 

• Data to be created or used by a program. 

A file may also contain other information serving a specific purpose. The various 
kinds of files are discussed in detail in this section. 

Some files contain programs or data essential to the operation of the System itself or 
necessary to perform a major function; these files are known as "System" files. 
Other files, called "user" files, are created and maintained by users of the System, 
such as yourself, to serve a desired purpose. 



2.1 FILENAMES 

Every file has a unique name, called a "filename," that distinguishes it from all other 
files in the same volume (see Section 3). While the System allows you great 
flexibility in naming files, there are certain restrictions that must be carefully 
observed. 

A valid filename consists of up to 15 characters. If you use any lower-case letters 
as part of a filename (as in "Myfile"), the System changes them to upper-case letters 
("MYFILE"). Blanks or non-displaying characters entered as part of a filename are 
removed by the System. 

A filename may be composed of from one to 15 of the following characters. 

• The upper-case letters A-Z 

• The digits 0-9 

• The special characters hyphen (-), slash (/), backslash (\), underline (_), and 
period (.) 

Filenames may not contain the dollar sign ($), colon (:), equals sign (=), question mark 
(?), or comma (,) characters. 



FILER 

Page 9 



FILES 



The acceptable special characters, especially the period, are frequently used to 
indicate relationships among files or to distinguish between related files of different 
types. For example, the files MYFILE.TEXT and MYFILE.CODE would probably 
contain different representations of the same information (see Section 2.3). 



2.2 SYSTEM FILES 

System files, the files important to the operation of the System and its major 
functions, are identified by the prefix SYSTEM. Some System files contain programs 
that are accessed by pressing a letter from the System promptline (the System 
command level), as follows. 



Letter 


File Invoked 


Function 


E 


SYSTEM.EDITOR 


Editor 


F 


SYSTE M .FILER 


Filer 


C 


SYSTEM.COMPILER 


Compiler 


A 


SYSTEM.ASSMBLER 


Assembler 


L 


SYSTEM.LINKER 


Linker 



(Note that the filename SYSTEM.ASSMBLER is missing an E so that it complies with 
the 15-character limit on filenames.) 

When you press one of these letters from the System promptline, the System checks 
each disk drive for the appropriate file. If the file is found, the appropriate function 
is initiated; if the file is not found, an error message is displayed. 

Although the file SYSTEM.COMPILER usually contains the Pascal compiler, it can 
actually be any available compiler (FORTRAN, BASIC, etc.). By changing filenames 
so that the compiler you wish to use is named SYSTEM.COMPILER (see Section 5.2), 
you can access that compiler by pressing C from the System promptline. 



FILER 

Page 10 



FILES 



2.2.1 Built-in System Files 

Three essential System files are actually built into your P-Code peripheral. 

File Purpose 

SYSTEM.PASCAL The Operating System 

SYSTEM. MISCINFO Miscellaneous information used by the System 

SYSTEM.CHARAC Character definitions 

Since these files are part of the "firmware" (that is, they are stored on integrated 
circuit chips, or IC's), you cannot modify them. However, you can override the 
information in the files SYSTEM. MISCINFO (see the SETUP utility in the UCSD 
p-System Utilities manual) and SYSTEM.CHARAC by having files with those names on 
a diskette in Disk Drive 1. When the System is first turned on (or if you press I to 
invoke the Knitialize command from the System promptline), the diskette is checked 
to see if those files are present. If they are, the System uses the files on the 
diskette; otherwise, it uses the files in the P-Code peripheral firmware. 

Although the essential portions of the file SYSTEM.PASCAL are in firmware, a file 
of that name may be on the Utilities diskette in the first disk drive. If this file is 
present, it normally contains error messages that may be displayed when certain error 
conditions arise. If there is no disk file named SYSTEM.PASCAL containing error 
messages, an error number, rather than an error message, is displayed when an error 
occurs. The UCSD p-System P-Code peripheral manual contains a list of the error 
numbers and their meanings. 



FILER 

Page 11 



FILES 



2.2.2 Optional System Files 

Although they are not essential to the operation of the System, you may want to 
develop two System files, SYSTEM.LIBRARY and SYSTEM.STARTUP, for an added 
measure of convenience. 

By developing a file named SYSTEM.LIBRARY, you can store routines that perform 
functions you want to use in many programs, to avoid retyping the routines each time 
you write a program. This file can contain previously compiled or assembled program 
routines to be linked with other routines or programs. See the UCSD p-System 
Utilities and Linker manuals for details on the use of SYSTEM.LIBRARY. 

If you have a program that you want to run each time you start up the System 
(before the System promptline is displayed), name it SYSTEM.STARTUP. The System 
then executes the program in that file automatically each time the system is turned 
on or initialized. 



2.3 USER FILES 

Any file that is not a System file (that is, any file that does not begin with the 
SYSTEM, prefix) is called a "user" file. User files generally contain program or 
documentation text, compiled or assembled program code, or data in any kind of 
user-defined format. 

There are no restrictions on the organization or contents of user files. However, 
certain types of files, indicated by reserved filename suffixes, are treated in very 
specific ways by the System (the Editor, for example, only edits textfiles). The 
reserved suffixes are as follows. 



Suffix File Contents 

•TEXT Text (often program statements) entered with the Editor 

.BACK A duplicate copy of a textfile 

.CODE A program that can be executed by the System 

.DATA Data in a user-specified format 

•BAD A file covering a damaged area of a diskette 



FILER 

Page 12 



FILES 



2.3.1 .TEXT Files 

.TEXT files, such as MYFILE.TEXT, are human-readable files, formatted for use by 
the Editor. You might, for example, use the Editor to enter statements for a Pascal 
program. The Editor then stores the statements on a diskette as a textfile. The 
UCSD p-System Editor manual provides detailed instructions for working with 
textfiles. 

Textfiles are internally organized into "pages" of 2 "blocks" each. The length of a 
block is 512 bytes, making a textfile page 1024 bytes long. The first page of every 
textfile, called the "header" page, contains information used by the Editor. The Filer 
can transfer a header page from one diskette to another but not from a diskette to 
an output device (such as a printer). Since all files created with a .TEXT suffix have 
a header attached, they are always treated as textfiles, even if the suffix is later 
dropped from the filename. 

The remainder of a textfile is also organized into pages, each containing a series of 
text lines, where each line of text ends with a <return>. Although one line of text 
may fill an entire page, the length of a text line is typically 80 characters or less. 
If the text lines do not exactly fill a page, the page is "padded" with NUL characters 
(hexadecimal 00) until the page is exactly 1024 bytes long. 

If a line of text begins with spaces (such as a line that is indented), the System does 
not write the leading spaces into the textfile. Instead it creates a "blank-suppression 
pair," consisting of a DLE character (decimal 16) followed by a byte having a value 
that is 32 greater than the number of spaces being replaced. For example, if the 
first 11 characters of a line of text are spaces, the blank-suppression pair is a DLE 
followed by a byte with the value of 43 (32 greater than 11). 

2.3.2 .BACK Files 

.BACK files are simply backups, or duplicate copies, of textfiles. To make a backup 
copy of a .TEXT file, use the T(rans command (see Section 5.14). 



FILER 

Page 13 



FILES 



2.3.3 .CODE Files 

.CODE files, such as MYFILE.CODE, contain either compiled or assembled code. 
The term "code" refers to a program or program segment that is in a form such that 
it can be executed by the computer. Codefiles are typically the output of the 
Compiler or the Assembler; they may also be generated by the Linker from a group 
of previously existing codefiles. 

Codefiles contain either psuedo-code (p-code) or "native" code. P-code is code 
generated by the Compiler that can be executed by the System. Native code, 
generated by the Assembler, is machine code that can be run directly by the 
computer's TMS9900 microprocessor. 

A codefile must be created with a .CODE suffix; the suffix can later be dropped, and 
you can still execute the file. The Compiler and Assembler automatically append 
.CODE to the names of specified output files. 

Codefiles begin with a single block called a segment dictionary, which contains 
internal information used by the System and Linker. 

2.3.4 .DATA Files 

.DATA files contain information organized in any format specified by the user. 
Datafiles typically contain data that is created or used by user programs. 

2.3.5 .BAD Files 

.BAD files are immobile files that cover physically damaged portions of a diskette. 
They differ from all other types of files in that they do not actually contain any kind 
of data but instead isolate only the unusable portions of a diskette. Thus, you can 
still record information on the remainder of the diskette. 



FILER 

Page 14 



FILES 



2.4 THE WORKFILE 

The workfile consists of several files designed for convenient use by the Editor and 
the Compiler. In addition, the p-System's R(un command executes the current 
workfile. 

The Editor allows you to create and modify the textfile portion of the workfile (see 
the UCSD p-System Editor manual). Then, if you successfully compile the workfile, 
the Compiler creates a codefile as its output file and, if specified, also creates a 
listing file. If you choose the R(un command from the System promptline, the 
program that is run is the compiled codefile. 

The Filer provides several commands that can help you manipulate the workfile. 



Command Function 



G(et Identifies an existing file as the workfile. 

N(ew Empties the workfile and removes SYSTEM. WRK. TEXT, 

SYSTEM.WRK.CODE, and SYSTEM.WRK.BACK. 
S(ave Saves the workfile. 

W(hat Displays the name and status of the current workfile. 

The use of these commands is explained in detail in Section 5. 



FILER 

Page 15 



SECTION 3: DEVICES 



The various peripherals that the p-System uses are called "devices," and the contents 
of devices are referred to as "volumes." For example, a disk drive (a device) may at 
any given time contain one of a number of diskettes (volumes). A device, like a file, 
may be either a source of data or a destination for data. Many of the Filer's data 
transfer operations apply to devices as well as to files. 

The System controls devices through a group of routines collectively called the Basic 
Input/Output Subsystem (BIOS). A section of the BIOS that controls a particular 
device is called a device "driver." 



3.1 DEVICE STRUCTURE 

The System distinguishes between two types of devices: block-structured devices and 
non-block-structured devices. 

Block-structured devices, such as diskettes, are organized into randomly accessible 
512-byte blocks. A diskette file may be of any length but must contain a whole 
number of blocks. 

Non-block-structured devices, such as printers, have no internal structure but deal 
with "serial" character streams (that is, they process a series of characters, one at a 
time). 



3.2 DEVICE IDENTIFICATION 

Devices have both names and numbers, which can generally be used interchangeably. 
Standard devices have fixed names; removable volumes (like diskettes) have their 
names recorded on them. 

Device names and numbers are followed by a colon (:) to distinguish them from 
filenames and to allow them to be prefixed to filenames. Device numbers are also 
preceded by a pound sign (//). For example, MYDISK:MYFILE.TEXT refers to the 
textfile MYFILE.TEXT on the volume MYDISK:. If MYDISK: is in device number 
four, the complete filename could also be written as #4: MYFILE.TEXT. 



FILER 

Page 16 



DEVICES 



A disk drive has no assigned device name; instead, the volume name of the diskette in 
the drive is considered to be the device name of the disk drive. Thus, while the 
device number of a disk drive never changes, the device name changes each time a 
new volume (diskette) is inserted. 

The following table lists the device number associated with each device and the 
reserved volume names that refer to devices. 



Number 


Name 


Description 


#1 


CONSOLE: 


Keyboard and display with echo 


#2 


SYSTERM: 


Keyboard and display without echo 


#4 


(diskette name): 


1st disk drive 


#5 


(diskette name): 


2nd disk drive 


#6 


PRINTER: 


9600 baud RS232 input/output 


#7 


REM IN: 


300 baud RS232 input 


#8 


REMOUT: 


300 baud RS232 output 


#9 


(diskette name): 


3rd disk drive 


#14 


OS: 


Operating System 


#31 


TAPE: 


Audio cassette tape 


#32 


TP: 


Solid State Thermal Printer 



3.2.1 CONSOLE: and SYSTERM: 

CONSOLE: is the System's standard input and output device for entering commands 
and other input from the keyboard and displaying information on the monitor screen. 

It is also possible to temporarily redirect the input or output of the System (see the 
UCSD p-System P-Code manual). If you define SYSTERM:, instead of CONSOLE:, as 
the System's input device, you lose the "echo" effect. Without echo, the characters 
you type on the keyboard are not displayed on the screen. 

3.2.2 Disks 

The System supports the operation of up to three disk drives. (See the TI Disk 
Memory System manual for information about connecting disk drives to the 
computer.) The first disk drive is device #4, the second drive is device #5, and the 
third drive is device #9. The System maintains a directory on each diskette 
containing the filenames and locations of up to 77 files. The prefix filename is the 
name of the diskette on which the file resides. 



FILER 

Page 17 



DEVICES 



The "root" volume is the diskette that is in the first drive (device #4) when the 
System is "booted." (Booting, or bootstrapping, the System simply means turning it 
on.) You may substitute an asterisk (*) for the name or number of the root volume. 
For example, if MYDISK: is the name of the root volume, typing *MYFILE.TEXT is 
the same as typing MYDISK:MYFILE.TEXT. 

The System also has a "default" prefix to save you the trouble of typing a prefix each 
time you refer to a file. If you type a filename with no prefix, the System 
automatically attaches the default prefix to the front of the filename. When the 
System is booted, the default prefix is the name of the root volume. After you have 
booted the System, you can't change the root volume without rebooting; however, you 
can change the default prefix with the P(refix command (see Section 5.10). 

For example, assume that MYDISK:MYFILE.TEXT and DISK2:MYFILE.TEXT are files 
on two different diskettes (note that both files are named MYFILE.TEXT). If 
MYDISK: is the root volume when you boot the System, it is also the default prefix 
at that time. If you type MYFILE.TEXT, the System assumes that you mean 
MYDISK:MYFILE.TEXT. If you change the default prefix to DISK2:, typing 
MYFILE.TEXT is understood to mean DISK2:MYFILE.TEXT. The diskette that the 
default prefix refers to is often called the "default volume." 

You can substitute a colon (:) for the name or number of the default volume. For 
example, if MYDISK: is the default prefix, typing :MYFILE.TEXT is the same as 
typing MYDISK:MYFILE.TEXT. 

3.2.3 PRINTER:, REMIN:, and REMOUT: 

PRINTER:, REMIN:, and REMOUT: all refer to devices connected to a TI RS232 
Interface unit attached to the computer. PRINTER:, a 9600-baud device connected 
to port 2 of the RS232 Interface, can be used for both input and output. ("Baud" is 
the speed of data transmission in bits-per-second.) 

REMIN: and REMOUT: both refer to a 300-baud device connected to port 1 of the 
RS232 Interface. REMIN: can only be used for input; REMOUT: can only be used 
for output. 

See the TI RS232 Interface owner's manual for complete details on its use. 



FILER 

Page 18 



DEVICES 



3.2.4 OS: 

The device named OS: is used by the Operating System for internal purposes and is 
not available to the user. 

3.2.5 TAPE: 

The device named TAPE: is an audio cassette tape recorder connected to the 
computer with a TI Cassette Interface Cable (see the User's Reference Guide for 
set-up information). 

3.2.6 TP: 

The device named TP: is a TI Solid State Thermal Printer. (See the Thermal Printer 
owner's manual for complete details on its use.) 



FILER 

Page 19 



SECTION 4: USING THE FILER 



To enter the Filer, press the letter F from the System promptline. The following 
promptline is then displayed. 

Filer: G(et, S(ave, W(hat,? [CIO] 

The question mark (?) indicates that there are more commands available than can fit 
on one promptline. Press ? to display additional Filer commands. The other 
commands then appear in the order listed here. 

Filer: N(ew, L(dir, R(em,? [CIO] 

Filer: C(hng, T(rans, D(ate,? [CIO] 

Filer: Q(uit, B(ad-blks,? [C.10J 

Filer: E(xt-dir, K(rnch, M(ake,? [CIO] 

Filer: P(refix, V(ols, X(amine,? [CIO] 

Filer: Z(ero [CIO] 

Note that pressing ? when the last promptline is displayed returns the first promptline 
to the screen. 

Filer commands are invoked by pressing the letter to the left of the parenthesis. For 
example, press G to select the G(et command. 

Commands are available even when they are not displayed on the current promptline; 
if any one of the promptlines is on the display, all Filer commands are available. 

(Note: The "CIO" displayed at the end of the promptline is the Filer version 
number. Future releases of the Filer, if any, may display a different version number.) 

When you press a letter to select a Filer command, you are frequently prompted to 
enter additional information. The most common kinds of prompts are those that call 
for a yes or no answer and those that ask you to enter a volume ID or a file 
specification. 



FILER 

Page 20 



USING THE FILER 



4.1 YES/NO PROMPTS 

If you answer a "yes/no" question by typing any character other than a Y (upper- or 
lower-case), your response is assumed to be "no." You do not need to press <return> 
after your response to a yes/no question since your input is accepted as soon as you 
press a key. To return to the Filer promptline, press <esc>. 



4.2 VOLUME ID'S AND FILE SPECIFICATIONS 

Some prompts ask you to enter a volume ID, which may be either a volume name or 
a device number, followed by pressing <return>. 

Many prompts ask you to specify a filename. A file specification can be a single 
filename, a list of filenames, or an expression using wildcards (see Section 4.2.2). A 
filename may be preceded by a volume ID and followed by an integer in brackets, 
specifying the size of the file (in blocks). For example, MYFILE.TEXT[4] indicates 
that the file MYFILE.TEXT occupies four blocks. Size specifications are discussed in 
the descriptions of the commands that are affected by them. Always follow file 
specifications by pressing <return>. 

All Filer commands except G(et and S(ave require full filenames, including suffixes 
such as .TEXT and .CODE. Note that G(et and S(ave supply these suffixes 
automatically. 

If you specify a volume or device that the Filer can't find, it displays one of the 
following messages, and then the Filer promptline returns to the screen. 

No such vol on-line <source> 
No such vol on-line <dest> 

If you specify a file that the Filer can't find, it displays one of the following 
messages, and then the Filer promptline returns to the screen. 

File not found <source> 
File not found <dest> 

"Source" refers to the first file specification entered; "dest" (for "destination") refers 
to the second specification, if any. 



FILER 

Page 21 



USING THE FILER 



If more than one on-line volume (devices are correctly attached and turned on) has 
the same name, the Filer displays a warning to that effect. To avoid confusion, use 
device numbers to specify on which volume a file is located. Although you may 
sometimes need to have two volumes with the same name on-line at the same time, 
it is best to try to avoid this situation. 

4.2.1 Filename Lists 

When entering a file specification, you may list as many files as desired by separating 
file specifications with commas. Commands operating on single filenames read them 
from the file list and process them until there are none left. Commands operating 
on two filenames, such as C(hng and T(rans, read file specifications in pairs and 
process each pair until only one filename (or none) remains. If one filename remains, 
the Filer prompts you to enter the second member of the pair. If an error is 
detected in the list, the remainder of the list is ignored. 

In a filename pair, the dollar sign character ($) indicates that the second filename is 
the same as the first, perhaps with a different volume name or size specification. 
For example, if you type #4:MYFILE.TEXT,//5:$ in response to the prompt 
"Transfer ?", the Filer transfers the file MYFILE.TEXT from device #4 to device //5 
without changing the filename. 

4.2.2 Wildcards 

When used as part of a file specification, two special characters, called "wildcards," 
allow you to perform an operation on more than one file without entering multiple 
filenames. The two wildcards are the equals sign (=) and question mark (?) 
characters. 

Just as a wildcard in a card game can represent any card, a wildcard in a file 
specification represents any portion of the specification. For example, the file 
specification MYFILE= represents every filename that starts with MYFILE, including 
MYFILE.TEXT and MYFILE.CODE. The specification =.TEXT refers to every file 
that ends with the suffix .TEXT, and the specification MY=TEXT refers to every file 
that starts with MY and ends with TEXT. The file specification = is also valid by 
itself and refers to every file. 



FILER 

Page 22 



USING THE FILER 



Wildcards are said to be "subset-specifying," in that they are used to specify a group 
of files which is a "subset" of the "set" of all files. The characters used with 
wildcards are called "subset-specifying strings" because those characters determine 
which of the files are part of the subset. For example, the file specification 
MYFILE=, consisting of the subset-specifying string MYFILE and the wildcard =, 
specifies as a subset all files starting with MYFILE. 

If you specify the = wildcard, the Filer performs the appropriate operation on all files 
meeting the specification as soon as you press <return>. If you use the ? wildcard, 
the Filer asks you for verification before performing the operation on each file. 

For example, assume that the following files are on MYDISK:, the default volume. 

FILERDOC2.TEXT 

ABC.CODE 

ABC 

MYFILE.CODE 

STATIC.TEXT 

LETTER.TEXT 

TESTDOC.TEXT 

FILERDOC1.TEXT 

STATIC.CODE 

If you type F= in response to the prompt "Remove ?", the Filer responds: 

MYDISK:FILERDOC2.TEXT removed 
MYDISK:FILERDOCl.TEXT removed 

However, if you type F? in response to the "Remove ?" prompt, the Filer first 
prompts: 

Remove FILERDOC2.TEXT ? 

After you type a response (Y or N), the Filer prompts: 

Remove FILERDOC1.TEXT ? 

Note that when you use the ? instead of the = wildcard, the Filer gives you a chance 
to make sure that the resulting operations are the ones you intended. 



FILER 

Page 23 



SECTION 5: FILER COMMANDS 



The Filer contains 18 commands for creating, updating, and maintaining files. The 
commands are explained in this section in alphabetical order, according to the letter 
you press to access them. For your convenience, each command is listed here with 
its corresponding section number. 



Command 


Section 


B(ad-blks 


5.1 


C(hng 


5.2 


D(ate 


5.3 


E(xt-dir 


5.4 


G(et 


5.5 


K(rnch 


5.6 


L(dir 


5.7 


M(ake 


5.8 


N(ew 


5.9 


PCrefix 


5.10 


Q(uit 


5.11 


R(em 


5.12 


S(ave 


5.13 


T(rans 


5.14 


V(ols 


5.15 


W(hat 


5.16 


X(amine 


5.17 


Z(ero 


5.18 



FILER 

Page 24 



FILER COMMANDS 



5.1 B(ad-blks 

The B(ad-blks (bad blocks) command scans a diskette to detect any "bad" blocks. A 
bad block is one that is unusable for some physical reason, such as scratches, warping, 
fingerprints, etc. Bad blocks may cause errors when you try to write to, or read 
from, a diskette. 

To access the B(ad-blks command, press B from the Filer promptline. The Filer 
prompts: 

Bad block scan of ? 

Type the volume ID of the diskette you want to scan and press <return>. The Filer 
then prompts: 

Scan for 180 blocks ? (Y/N) 

Press Y to scan the entire diskette. To check only a portion of the diskette, press 
N. The Filer then prompts: 

Scan for how many blocks ? 

Type the number of blocks you want to scan and press <return>. 

If a bad block is detected, the Filer displays the number of that block. When the 
scan is completed, the number of each bad block, as well as the total number of bad 
blocks, is displayed. If a bad block is detected within a file, the filename, starting 
block number, and ending block number of the "endangered" file are displayed. A file 
containing a bad block is considered to be endangered because the data in the file 
could be irretrievably lost. 

For example, the detection of two bad blocks on a diskette might result in the display 
of the following messages. 

Block 94 is bad 
Block 121 is bad 
2 bad blocks 
File(s) endangered: 
MYDISK:MYFILE.TEXT 54 132 



FILER 

Page 25 



FILER COMMANDS 



The messages indicate the detection of two bad blocks. Both blocks 94 and 121 
occur in the file MYDISK:MYFILE.TEXT, which extends from block 54 to block 132. 
Since both bad blocks occur in the same file, only one file is endangered. 

If the B(ad-blk8 command indicates the presence of bad blocks, you can isolate those 
blocks with the X(amine command (see Section 5.17) so that they can cause no future 
problems. 



FILER 

Page 26 



FILER COMMANDS 



5.2 C(hng 

The C(hng (change) command lets you change a filename or the name of a diskette 
volume. 

To access the C(hng command, press C from the Filer promptline. The Filer prompts: 

Change ? 

Type two file specifications separated by a comma. The first specifies the file or 
volume name to be changed, while the second specifies the new name. 

For example, if you type MYDISK:MYFILE.TEXT,NEWNAME in response to the 
"Change ?" prompt, the Filer indicates the filename change as follows. 

MYDISK:MYFILE.TEXT -> NEWNAME 

If you type only one file specification in response to the "Change ?" prompt, the Filer 
prompts: 

Change to what ? 

This prompt allows you to enter the second specification. 

The Filer ignores any volume information entered as part of the second file 
specification. To move files from one volume to another, use the T(rans command 
(see Section 5.14). 

The C(hng command does not affect filetypes, even if an identifying suffix is dropped. 
In the previous example, NEWNAME is still a textfile because its original name 
(MYFILE.TEXT) included a .TEXT suffix. Note, however, that since the G(et 
command searches for the .TEXT suffix, NEWNAME must be renamed 
NEWNAME.TEXT before it can be specified as the workfile (see Section 2.4). 

5.2.1 C(hng with Wildcards 

If you include a wildcard character (see Section 4.2.2) in the first file specification, 
you must also include it in the second specification. The subset-specifying strings in 
the first file specification are replaced by the strings (called "replacement strings") in 
the second file specification. 



FILER 

Page 27 



FILER COMMANDS 



For example, assume that the following files are on the volume MYDISK:. 

DANIEL.TEXT 
FRANCES.TEXT 
FREDERICK 
FRIEDA.TEXT 

If you type MYDISK:FR=,XX= in response to the "Change ?" prompt, the Filer 
responds: 

MYDISKrFRANCES.TEXT --> XXANCES.TEXT 
MYDISK:FRIEDA.TEXT -> XXIEDA.TEXT 

If you use the ? wildcard character instead of the =, the Filer asks you to confirm 
the change of each filename. For example, if you type MYDISK:FR?,XX? in response 
to the "Change ?" prompt, the Filer responds: 

Change MYDISK:FRANCES.TEXT ? 

After you type a response (Y or N), the Filer prompts: 

Change MYDISK:FRIEDA.TEXT ? 

This prompt gives you the opportunity to verify that you have specified the filenames 
you actually want to change. 

The Filer does not change a filename if the change would make the filename too long 
(greater than 15 characters). 

Both a subset-specifying string and a replacement string may be empty. The Filer 
interprets the file specification = (where the subset-specifying and replacement 
strings are both empty) to mean every file on the diskette. 

For example, assume that the following files are on a diskette. 

THIS.TEXT 
THAT.TEXT 

If you type T=T,= in response to the "Change ?" prompt, the Filer changes THIS.TEXT 
to HIS.TEX and THAT.TEXT to HAT.TEX. 



FILER 

Page 28 



FILER COMMANDS 



3.2.2 Changing Volume Names 

You can also change volume names with the C(hng command. For example, if you 
type MYDISK:,NEWNAME: in response to the "Change ?" prompt, the Filer indicates 
the change to the volume name as follows. 

MYDI5K: -> NEWNAME: 



FILER 

Page 29 



FILER COMMANDS 



5.3 D(ate 

The D(ate command lets you display or change the current System date. When you 
create, modify, or S(ave a file, the System date is recorded with the file. When you 
list a disk directory, the dates associated with each file are displayed. The System 
date is stored in the directory of the root volume and remains the same until you 
change it by selecting the D(ate command. 

To access the D(ate command, press D from the Filer promptline. The Filer might 
respond as follows. 

Date set: <1..31>-<Jan..Dec>-<00..99> 
Today is 15-Aug-81 
New date ? 

The current System date is displayed in day-month-year order. To leave the date 
unchanged, press <return>. 

To change the date, type the day, month, and year, separated by hyphens (-), and 
press <return>. It isn't necessary to enter the full name of the month because the 
Filer ignores all but the first three letters. Also, note that the year is entered as 
two digits, not four; for example, type 81 rather than 1981. After you press 
<return>, the new System date is displayed. 

If you type just the day and then press <return>, the System month and year are not 
changed. Similarly, if you change only the day and month, the System year remains 
the same. 

If you type a hyphen (-) instead of the month, day, or year, that item remains 
unchanged. For example, typing -Sep changes the System month to September but 
does not change the System day or year, while typing --82 changes the System year 
to 1982 but does not change the System day or month. 



FILER 

Page 30 



FILER COMMANDS 



5.4 E(xt-dir 

The E(xt-dir (list extended directory) command lists a disk directory with more detail 
than the list provided with the L(dir command (see Section 5.7). This section only 
describes the listing itself; see the description of the L(dir command for a complete 
explanation of prompts, wildcard options, and output redirection. 

To access the E(xt-dir command, press E from the Filer promptline. A listing 
appears next providing the following information about all files. 

• Filename 

• Length (in blocks) 

• Last modification date 

• Starting block number 

• Filetype 

The size and location of all unused areas are also included in the listing. 
The following is an example of an extended directory listing. 



MYDISK: 












FILERDCC2.TEXT 


28 


5-Oct- 


•80 


6 


Text 


ABC. CODE 


18 


4-Dec- 


■81 


34 


Code 


< UNUSED > 


10 






52 




ABC 


4 


1-Feb- 


-82 


62 


Data 


MYFILE.CODE 


12 


1-Sep- 


■81 


66 


Code 


STATIC. TEXT 


8 


9-Jun- 


-81 


78 


Text 


LETTER. TEXT 


18 


9 -May- 


-81 


86 


Text 


TESTDOC.TEXT 


20 


1 -Sep- 


-80 


104 


Text 


FILERDCCl.TEXT 


24 


1-Sep- 


-80 


124 


Text 


STATIC. CODE 


6 


9-Jun- 


-81 


148 


Code 


< UNUSED > 


26 






154 





9/9 files, 36 unused, 26 in largest 



FILER 

Page 31 



FILER COMMANDS 

5.5 G(et 

The G(et command identifies a specified file as the workfile. 

To access the G(et command, press G from the Filer promptline. The Filer then 
prompts you for additional information, depending on whether or not an unsaved 
workfile or a .BACK version of the workfile exists. If you have saved the workfile 
(see Section 5.13) but don't have a .BACK version of it, the Filer prompts: 

Get ? 

Type the name of the file you want to specify as the workfile. You don't need to 
type the suffix because the G(et command loads both the .TEXT and the .CODE 
versions of the file, if they exist. 

If an unsaved workfile is present, the Filer first prompts: 

Throw away current workfile ? 

Press Y to clear the workfile, or press N to return to the Filer promptline without 
clearing the workfile. Remember that the contents of the workfile are lost if you 
don't save the current workfile before specifying a new one. If you press Y, the 
Filer then displays the "Get?" prompt. 

If a .BACK version of the workfile exists, the Filer first prompts: 

Remove (workfile name).BACK ? 

Press Y to remove the .BACK file, or press N to leave the .BACK file undisturbed. 
The Filer then displays the "Get?" prompt. 



FILER 

Page 32 



FILER COMMANDS 



For example, assume that the following files are on the default diskette. 

FILERDOC2.TEXT 

ABC.CODE 

ABC 

MYFILE.CODE 

STATIC.TEXT 

LETTER.TEXT 

TESTDOC.TEXT 

FILERDOC1.TEXT 

STATIC.CODE 

If you type STATIC in response to the "Get ?" prompt, the Filer responds: 

Text & Code file loaded 

The message indicates that both STATIC.TEXT and STATIC.CODE have been 
specified as the workfile. 

If you type STATIC.TEXT or STATIC.CODE in response to the "Get ?" prompt, the 
result is the same. Both the teXtfile and the codefile versions are loaded, regardless 
of which one you specify. 

If only one version of the file exists, that version is loaded whether you specify the 
textfile or codefile. For example, if you type ABC.TEXT in response to the "Get ?" 
prompt and only the codefile exists, the Filer responds: 

Code file loaded 



FILER 

Page 33 



FILER COMMANDS 



5.6 K(rnch 

The K(rnch (crunch) command lets you rearrange the files on a specified diskette so 
that they are adjacent and combines unused blocks into one large area. 

To access the K(rnch command, press K from the Filer promptline. The Filer then 
prompts: 

Crunch ? 

Type the volume ID of the diskette you want to crunch. The Filer next prompts: 

From end of disk, block 180 ? (Y/N) 

Press Y if you want to crunch the entire diskette, leaving all files at the front of the 
diskette and one large unused area at the end. If you press N, the Filer prompts: 

Starting at block // ? 

Type the number of the block from which you want the crunch to start and press 
<return>. Crunching from a block in the middle of the diskette leaves an unused 
area in the middle of the diskette, with files clustered toward either end. 

The K(rnch command moves the files one at a time. As each file is moved, the Filer 
displays a message to that effect. For example, if MYFILE is being moved, the Filer 
displays: 

Moving forward MYFILE 

The Filer also displays a message when the crunch is completed. For example, if 
MYDISK: is the diskette being crunched, the Filer displays: 

MYDISK: crunched 

It's a good idea to scan your diskette for bad blocks (see Section 5.1) before using the 
K(rnch command. If the diskette contains a bad block that has not been marked 
.BAD, K(rnch may write part of a file in that block, and the contents of that file are 
then irrecoverable. 



FILER 

Page 34 



FILER COMMANDS 



5.7 L(dir 

The L(dir (list directory) command provides a complete or partial listing of a disk 
directory. 

To access the L(dir command, press L from the Filer promptline. The Filer then 
prompts: 

Dir listing of ? 

Type the volume ID of the diskette. For example, if you type MYDISK: in response 
to the "Dir listing of ?" prompt, the Filer might respond: 



MYDISK: 






FILERDCC2.TEXT 


28 


5-Oct-80 


ABC. CODE 


18 


4-Dec-81 


ABC 


4 


l-Feb-82 


MYFILE.CCDE 


12 


l-Sep-81 


STATIC. TEXT 


8 


9-Jun-81 


LETTER. TEXT 


18 


9-May-81 


TESTDOC.TEXT 


20 


l-Sep-80 


FILERDOCl.TEXT 


24 


l-Sep-80 


STATIC. CODE 


6 


9-Jun-81 


9/9 files, 36 unused, 


26 in largest 



The first column of the listing provides the filename of all the files, the second 
column gives the length in blocks, and the third indicates the last modification date. 

The bottom line of the listing tells you the number of files in the listing and the 
number of files on the diskette, the number of unused blocks on the diskette, and the 
number of blocks in the largest unused area of the diskette. 

Use the E(xt-dir command (see Section 5.4) to obtain information on filetypes and on 
the locations and sizes of files and unused areas of the diskette. 



FILER 

Page 35 



FILER COMMANDS 



If the directory listing is too long to fit on the display, the Filer lists as many files 
as possible and then prompts: 

Type <space> to continue 

Press the <spacebar> to list the rest of the directory. When you get to the end of 
the directory, the Filer displays the promptline. To return to the Filer promptline 
before reaching the end of the directory, press <esc>. 

5.7.1 L(dir with Wildcards 

You may use a wildcard character (see Section 4.2.2) to list any subset of the 
directory. For example, if you type MYDISK:FIL=TEXT in response to the "Dir 
listing of ?" prompt, the Filer responds: 

MYDISK: 

F I LERDOC2 . TEXT 28 5 -Oct -80 

FILERDOC1.TEXT 24 l-Sep-80 

2/9 files, 122 unused, 90 in largest 

5.7.2 Redirecting L(dir Output 

If you type a volume ID followed by a comma and a device name or filename, the 
directory listing is output to that device or file, instead of to the display. For 
example, if you type MYDISK:,TP: in response to the "Dir listing of ?" prompt, the 
directory listing is printed on the Solid State Thermal Printer; or if you type 
MYDISK:,DISK2:DIRLIST.TEXT as a response, the listing is written to the textfile 
DIRLIST.TEXT on the volume DISK2:. Note: If the output file specification is a 
disk volume, the volume ID must be followed by a filename or the output disk 
directory is destroyed. See Section 6.2 for information on the possibility of 
recovering a lost directory. 



FILER 

Page 36 



FILER COMMANDS 



5.8 M(ake 

The M(ake command lets you create a disk file by making an entry in the disk 
directory. With the M(ake command, you can create a file for future use, extend the 
size of a file, or recover a "lost" file (see Section 6.1). 

To access the M(ake command, press M from the Filer promptline. The Filer then 
prompts: 

Make ? 

Type a filename, optionally followed by a file size (in blocks) enclosed in square 
brackets ([ and ]), and press <return>. If you type the name of an existing file, the 
Filer prompts: 

Remove old (filename) ? 

Press Y to remove the existing file, or press N to return to the Filer promptline. 

For example, if you type MYDISK:MYFILE[28] in response to the "Make ?" prompt, 
the Filer responds: 

MYDISK:MYFILE made 

The message indicates that MYFILE was succesfully created in the first unused 
28-block or larger area on MYDISK:. 

If the size specification is zero or if it is omitted entirely, the Filer creates the file 
by completely filling the largest unused area of the diskette. If the size 
specification is an asterisk (*), the file is created in either the second largest unused 
area or half of the largest unused area, whichever is larger. 

The Filer does not create a textfile that is smaller than four blocks or contains an 
odd number of blocks. If you try to create a textfile with an odd number of blocks, 
the Filer subtracts one from the size specification to make it an even number. 



FILER 

Page 37 



FILER COMMANDS 

5.9 N(ew 

The N(ew command clears the workfile so that it is empty and unnamed. This 
command is especially helpful if you want to create a new file with the Editor. The 
new workfile remains unnamed until you save it (see Section 5.13). 

To access the N(ew command, press N from the Filer promptline. The Filer then 
prompts you for additional information, depending on whether or not an unsaved 
workfile or a .BACK version of the workfile exists. If you have saved the workfile 
but don't have a .BACK version of it, the Filer clears the workfile and displays the 
message: 

Workfile cleared 

If an unsaved workfile is present, the Filer first prompts: 

Throw away current workfile ? 

Press Y to clear the workfile or N to return to the Filer promptline without clearing 
the workfile. Remember that the contents of the workfile are lost if you don't save 
the workfile before you clear it. If you press Y, the Filer also displays the "Workfile 
cleared" message. 

If a .BACK version of the workfile exists, the Filer prompts: 

Remove (workfile name).BACK ? 

Press Y to remove the .BACK file or N to create a new workfile while leaving the 
.BACK file undisturbed. If you press Y, the Filer also displays the "Workfile cleared" 
message. 



FILER 

Page 38 



FILER COMMANDS 



5.10 P(refix 

The P(refix command lets you change the default prefix to a specified volume name 
or display the current default prefix. The default prefix is the volume name that the 
Filer places before any filename entered without a volume ID (see Section 3.2.2). 

To access the P(refix command, press P from the Filer promptline. The Filer then 
prompts: 

Prefix titles by ? 

To display the current default prefix without changing it, type a colon (:). To change 
the prefix, type the volume name of the diskette that you want to make the default 
volume and press <return>. If you type an entire file specification, the Filer ignores 
everything but the volume name. The specified volume does not have to be on-line 
when you set the default prefix. 

For example, if you type MYDISK: in response to the "Prefix titles by ?" prompt, the 
Filer responds: 

Prefix is MYDISK: 

If you type a device number instead of a volume name in response to the prompt, the 
new default prefix is the name of the volume in that device. If no volume is in the 
specified device at that time, the device number becomes the new default prefix, and 
any volume in the default device is considered to be the default volume until you 
change the default prefix again. 

If you type an asterisk (*) in response to the "Prefix titles by ?" prompt, the new 
default prefix is the name of the root volume. 



FILER 

Page 39 



FILER COMMANDS 

5.11 Q(uit 

The Q(uit command leaves the Filer and returns the System promptline to the display. 
To access the Q(uit command, press Q from the Filer promptline. 



FILER 

Page 40 



FILER COMMANDS 



5.12 R(em 

The R(em (remove) command lets you remove (delete) file entries from a disk 
directory. Although removing a directory entry doesn't actually erase a file, the 
System considers the blocks occupied by a removed file to be unused and available for 
storing new files. 

To access the R(emove command, press R from the Filer promptline. The Filer then 
prompts: 

Remove ? 

Type the name of the file that you want to remove from the disk directory and press 
<return>. 

For example, assume that the following files are on the default volume MYDISK:. 

FILERDOC2.TEXT 

ABC.CODE 

ABC 

MYFILE.CODE 

STATIC.TEXT 

LETTER.TEXT 

TESTDOC.TEXT 

FILERDOC1.TEXT 

STATIC.CODE 

If you type MYFILE.CODE in response to the "Remove ?" prompt, the Filer responds: 

MYDISK:MYFILE.CODE --> removed 

Update directory ? 

Although the message indicates that the file has been removed, the file isn't actually 
removed if you respond to the "Update directory ?" prompt by pressing N. This 
safety feature helps ensure that you do not inadvertently remove the wrong files. 

If you respond to the prompt by pressing Y, the file MYFILE.CODE is removed from 
the directory of MYDISK:. 

Note: Do not use the R(em command to remove the workfile; instead, use the N(ew 
command to clear the workfile. 



FILER 

Page 41 



FILER COMMANDS 



5.12.1 R(em with Wildcards 

Wildcards (see Section 4.2.2) are helpful in diminishing the amount of typing necessary 
to remove multiple files. For example, if you type F= in response to the "Remove ?" 
prompt, the Filer responds: 

MYDISK:FILERDOC2.TEXT --> removed 
MYDISK:FILERDOCl.TEXT --> removed 
Update directory ? 

Press Y to remove both files from the MYDISK: directory, or press N to return to 
the Filer promptline. 

If you use the ? wildcard character instead of the =, the Filer asks you to confirm 
the removal of each file. For example, if you type F? in response to the "Remove ?" 
prompt, the Filer responds: 

Remove MYDISK:FILERDOC2.TEXT ? 
After you type a response (Y or N), the Filer prompts: 

Remove MYDISK:FILERDOCl.TEXT ? 

This prompt allows you to verify the files you actually want to remove. 

After you verify the removal of the last file that meets the specification, the Filer 
prompts: 

Update directory ? 

Press Y to remove all the files that you specified for removal; if you indicated that 
certain files should not be removed, these are left undisturbed. For example, if you 
press Y in response to the "Remove MYDISK:FILERDOC2.TEXT ?" prompt and N in 
response to the "Remove MYDISK:FILERDOCl.TEXT ?" prompt, only 
FILERDOC2.TEXT is removed when you press Y in response to the "Update 
directory ?" prompt. 

Remember that if you type a wildcard character by itself in response to the 
"Remove ?" prompt, you are specifying every file on the volume. Typing only = or ? 
instructs the Filer to remove every file in your directory. 



FILER 

Page 42 



FILER COMMANDS 



5.13 S(ave 

The S(ave command lets you save the workfile under a specified filename. After the 
workfile has been saved, you can use the N(ew command to clear the workfile In 
preparation for creating a new file with the Editor. If you don't save the workfile 
before using the N(ew command, the contents of the workfile are lost. 

To access the S(ave command, press S from the Filer promptline. If a named 
workfile exists, the Filer prompts: 

Save as (filename) ? 

Press Y to save the workfile under the displayed filename. If you press N or if a 
named workfile does not exist, the Filer prompts: 

Save as ? 

Type a filename without a suffix and press <return>. The Filer appends the 
appropriate suffix to the filename. For example, if you type MYFILE in response to 
the "Save as ?" prompt, the Filer saves the textfile version of the workfile (if it 
exists) as MYFILE.TEXT and the codefile version (if any) as MYFILE.CODE. 

If you type the name of an existing file in response to the "Save as ?" prompt, the 
Filer prompts: 

Remove old (filename) ? 

Press Y to replace the existing file with the contents of the workfile, or press N to 
return to the Filer promptline without changing the existing file. 



FILER 

Page A3 



FILER COMMANDS 



5.14 T(rans 

The T(rans (transfer) command lets you copy a specified file or volume to a specified 
destination. The T(rans command can be used to copy a file from one diskette to 
another, to make a backup copy of an entire diskette, to print a copy of a file as a 
permanent record, to transmit a file to another computer, or to receive a file from 
another computer. 

To access the T(rans command, press T from the Filer promptline. The Filer then 
prompts: 

Transfer ? 

Type two file specifications separated by a comma. The first specifies the file or 
volume to be copied (the "source" specification), and the second specifies the file or 
volume that is the destination of the copy. 

For example, if you type MYDISK:MYFILE.TEXT,DISK2:MYFILE.TEXT in response to 
the "Transfer ?" prompt, the Filer copies MYFILE.TEXT from MYDISK: to DISK2: 
and displays: 

MYDISK:MYFILE.TEXT --> DISK2: MYFILE.TEXT 

If you type only one file specification in response to the "Transfer ?" prompt, the 
Filer prompts 

To where ? 

This prompt allows you to enter the second specification. 

To copy a file to another diskette without changing its name, you can type a dollar 
sign ($) instead of the destination filename. For example, typing 
MYDISK:MYFILE.TEXT,DISK2:$ is the equivalent of typing 
MYDISK:MYFILE.TEXT,DISK2:MYFILE.TEXT. 



FILER 

Page 44 



FILER COMMANDS 



You can copy a file from one diskette to another even if your system has only one 
disk drive. For example, if you attempt the transfer described above on a one-drive 
system, the Filer displays: 

Put in DISK2: 

Type <space> to continue 

Remove MYDISK:, insert DISK2:, and press the <spacebar>. Remember not to 
remove the source diskette until the Filer prompts you to insert the destination 
diskette. If a large file is being transferred, you may be prompted to insert the 
source and destination diskettes alternately until the transfer is complete. 

If you include a size with the second file specification, the Filer copies the file to 
the first area on the diskette that contains adequate space. If you do not specify a 
size, the Filer copies the file to the largest unused area. 

If you specify the same volume ID for both source and destination files, the file is 
relocated on the same diskette. If you specify the same filename for both source 
and destination files on a same-disk transfer, the Filer rewrites the file and removes 
the original file. 

CAUTION 

If you enter only a volume name for the destination 
specification and omit the filename, the destination 
diskette directory is destroyed. For example, if you type 
MYDISK:MYFILE.TEXT,DISK2: in response to the 
"Transfer ?" prompt, the Filer prompts: 

Destroy DISK2: ? 

This prompt is intended to be a warning. If you press Y, 
the directory of DISK2: is destroyed. Press N to return to 
the Filer promptline without destroying the directory. 
Note: If the file you are transferring is less than three 
blocks long, you DO NOT receive this warning prompt. 



FILER 

Page 45 



FILER COMMANDS 



5.14.1 Transferring Files to Output Devices 

To transfer a file to a non-block-structured device such as a printer, enter the 
appropriate volume ID for the destination file specification. For example, if you 
type MYFILE.TEXT,TP: in response to the "Transfer ?" prompt, the contents of the 
textfile MYFILE are printed on the TI Thermal Printer. 

You can also transfer a file from a non-block-structured input device, such as another 
computer connected to your computer through a TI RS232 Interface unit (see Section 
3.2 for the proper device name). The file being transferred must end with an EOF 
character (hexadecimal OF). 

5.14.2 TCrans with Wildcards 

Wildcards (see Section 4.2.2) are helpful in diminishing the amount of typing necessary 
to transfer multiple files. For example, if you type MYDISK:F=,DISK2:$ in response 
to the "Transfer ?" prompt, the Filer might respond: 

MYDISK:FILERDOC2.TEXT -> DISK2:FILERDOC2.TEXT 
MYDISK:FILERD0C1.TEXT --> DISK2:FILERD0C1.TEXT 

If you use the ? wildcard character instead of the =, the Filer asks you to confirm 
the transfer of each file. For example, if you type MYDISK:F?,DISK2:$ in response 
to the "Transfer ?" prompt, the Filer responds: 

Transfer MYDISK:FILERDOC2.TEXT ? 

After you type a response (Y or N), the Filer prompts: 

Transfer MYDISK:FILERDOCl.TEXT ? 

This prompt allows you to verify that you have specified the files you actually want 
to transfer. 



FILER 

Page 46 



FILER COMMANDS 



5.14.3 Transferring Volumes 

To use T(rans to copy one entire disk volume to another, type only the volume ID's 
for both the source and destination specifications. When you transfer a 
block-structured volume to another block-structured volume, the destination volume 
becomes an exact copy (including directory) of the source volume. 

For example, if you want a backup copy of MYDISK: and are willing to erase the 
volume DISK2:, type MYDISK:,DISK2: in response to the "Transfer ?" prompt. The 
Filer prompts: 

Transfer 180 blocks ? 

Press Y to transfer the entire volume. If you press N, the Filer prompts: 

// of blocks to transfer ? 

Type the number of blocks you wish to transfer and press <return>. Next, the Filer 
prompts: 

Destroy DISK2: ? 

Press Y to make DISK2: an exact copy of MYDISK:, or press N to return to the Filer 
promptline. 

Note: Although you can transfer the entire contents of one diskette to another using 
a single disk drive, the process can be time consuming. Because the T(rans command 
processes only a small amount of data at one time, a great deal of disk manipulation 
is often necessary to complete the transfer. 



FILER 

Page 47 



FILER COMMANDS 



5.15 V(ols 

The V(ols (volumes) command provides a list of the names and associated device 
numbers of all volumes currently "on-line." A volume is said to be on-line if it is 
accessible by the computer. Generally, "on-line" simply means that the device is 
attached to the computer and turned on. See Section 3 for a detailed discussion of 
volumes and devices. 

To access the V(ols command, press V from the Filer promptline. The Filer might 
respond as follows. 

Vol s on- 1 i ne : 

1 CONSOLE : 

2 SYSTERM: 

4 // MYDISK: 

5 // DISK2: 
14 OS: 

31 TAPE: 

32 TP: 

Root vol is - MYDISK: 
Prefix is - MYDISK: 

The first column gives the device number and the third column gives the volume 
name for all on-line volumes. A number sign (//) in the second column indicates that 
the device is block-structured. 

In addition to providing a list of volumes, the V(ols command lets you access disk 
drives that were empty when the System was booted. When the System is turned on, 
it checks to see what volumes are on-line. If a disk drive is empty at that time, the 
System does not access that drive even if you subsequently insert a diskette. The 
Unitialize command from the System promptline rechecks each disk drive to see if it 
contains a disk volume; the Filer's V(ols command is the only other command that 
performs this function. 



FILER 

Page 48 



FILER COMMANDS 

5.16 W(hat 

The W(hat command displays the name of the workfile and indicates whether or not it 
has been saved (see Section 5.13). 

To access the W(hat command, press W from the Filer promptline. If you have 
previously saved the workfile and have not subsequently used the N(ew command to 
clear it, the Filer responds: 

Workfile is (filename) 

If you have made changes to the workfile since the last time you saved it, the Filer 
also displays: 

(not saved) 
If a workfile is present but has never been saved, the Filer displays: 

not named (not saved) 
If there is no workfile, the Filer displays: 

No workfile 



FILER 

Page 49 



FILER COMMANDS 



5.17 X(amine 



The X(amine (examine) command lets you try to recover suspected bad blocks on a 
specified diskette. Before selecting the X(amine command, use the B(ad-blks 
command (see Section 5.1) to determine if a diskette contains bad blocks and, if so, 
to determine which blocks are bad. 

To access the X(amine command, press X from the Filer promptline. The Filer then 
prompts: 

Examine blocks on ? 

Type the volume ID of the diskette you want to examine and press <return>. The 
Filer next prompts: 

Block-range ? 

Type the numbers of the blocks identified as bad by the B(ad-blks command. Enter 
either a single number or two numbers separated by a hyphen to specify a range of 
bad blocks. Then press <return>. 

If any files are endangered, the Filer lists them as follows. 

File(s) endangered: 
(filename) 



(filename) 
Fix them ? 

Press N to return to the Filer promptline, or press Y if you want the Filer to attempt 
to "fix" the blocks. 

If you press Y, the Filer attempts to read the data from each bad block, write it 
back to the same block, and then read it once more. If the two attempts to read 
are successful and if exactly the same data is read both times, the Filer displays: 

Block (block-number) may be ok 



FILER 

Page 50 



FILER COMMANDS 



The message means that the block suspected of being bad has been "fixed"; that is, it 
is responding correctly to input and output operations, so no corrective action is 
necessary. A block which is fixed does not necessarily contain the expected data; 
the "may be ok" message just means that the block is probably physically undamaged. 

If either of the attempts to read are unsuccessful or if identical data is not read 
each time, the Filer displays: 

Block (block-number) is bad 

After the Filer has examined all suspected bad blocks, it displays a list of any files 
containing blocks that it was unable to fix, as follows. 

FileCs) endangered: 
(filename) 



(filename) 

Mark bad blocks ? (files will be removed !) (Y/N) 

Press Y to mark the bad blocks, or press N to return to the Filer promptline. Files 
that contain bad blocks to be marked are first removed from the disk directory, and 
data in those files is lost. 

When a bad block is marked, it becomes a special file with a .BAD suffix. .BAD 
files are unavailable for future use, effectively reducing the amount of space on the 
diskette. To ensure that the damaged portions of a diskette continue to be properly 
identified, .BAD files are not moved by the K(rnch command (see Section 5.6). 



FILER 

Page 51 



FILER COMMANDS 



5.18 Z(ero 

The Z(ero command lets you set up an empty directory on a specified disk volume. 
If the specified volume is an "old" diskette (one on which a directory already exists), 
the existing directory is destroyed. 

After you format a diskette with the DFORMAT utility (see the USCD p-System 
Utilities manual) or with the Disk Manager Solid State Software Command 

Module, selecting Z(ero changes the volume name to the one you specify here and 
also creates on the diskette a single, long file named PASCAL. 

To access the Z(ero command, press Z from the Filer promptline. The Filer then 
prompts: 

Zero dir of? 

Type the volume ID of the diskette on which you wish to create a directory and press 
<return>. If you specify an old diskette, the Filer prompts: 

Destroy (vol ume n ame ) ? 

Press Y to destroy the old directory in preparation for the creation of a new 
directory, or press N to return to the Filer promptline. 

Next, whether the specified diskette is old or "new" (a diskette without an existing 
directory), the Filer prompts: 

Dup 1 i cate dir? 

Press Y to create and maintain a duplicate directory, or press N to create a single 
directory only. A duplicate directory can prove to be extremely helpful if an original 
directory is accidentally destroyed. The COPYDUPDIR utility uses the duplicate 
directory to restore the original directory (see the UCSD p-System Utilities manual). 



FILER 

Page 52 



FILER COMMANDS 



If you are creating a directory on an old diskette, the Filer prompts: 

Are there 180 blks on the disk ? (Y/N) 

Press Y to create a disk directory that allows you to use the diskette with the 
p-System. If you press N or if you are creating a directory on a new diskette, the 
Filer prompts: 

// of blocks on the disk ? 

Type the number of blocks desired and press <return>. For the diskette to be used 
with the p-System, your response should be 180. 

Next, the Filer prompts: 

New vol name ? 

Type a valid volume name and press <return>. To let you verify that you have 
correctly typed the desired name, the Filer prompts: 

(new volume name) correct ? 

Press Y if the displayed name is correct, or press N to re-enter the new volume 
name. 

When the Filer has succesfully completed writing the new directory on the diskette, it 
displays: 

(new volume name) zeroed 



FILER 

Page 53 



SECTION 6: RECOVERING LOST DATA 



If you accidentally remove a file or destroy a directory entry, you may be able to 
recover the information that has apparently been lost. This section describes some 
of the methods for recovering lost files and also explains what to do if you lose an 
entire directory. 



6.1 LOST FILES 

When you remove a file, it is still physically on the diskette but is no longer in the 
directory. The information that the file contained remains on the diskette until 
another file is written over it. Since the Filer considers the space as being usable, 
the file could be written over at any time. If a file is accidentally removed, be 
careful not to do anything that causes data to be written on the diskette, as you may 
overwrite the lost file. The K(rnch command, for example, is extremely likely to 
overwrite lost files. 

The E(xt-dir command displays not only filenames but also the sizes and locations of 
unused blocks. By looking at the length of an unused portion and its location in the 
directory, you can often tell where the lost file was located. With the M(ake 
command (see Section 5.8) you can recreate a file in the same location, thereby 
recovering the lost file. 

To recover a file with M(ake, the size specification should be equal to the size of the 
lost file. If you remember the size or if the lost file was adjacent on both sides to 
files that are still listed in the directory, determining the size specification presents 
no difficulty. 

Since M(ake creates a file of the specified size in the first available location, it may 
be necessary to create "filler" files to fill up unused (and unwanted) space preceding 
the location of the lost file. These filler files may later be removed. 



FILER 

Page 54 



RECOVERING LOST DATA 



For example, consider the following extended directory listing. 



MYDISK: 












FILERDOC2.TEXT 


28 


5-Oct- 


■ 80 


6 


Text 


ABC. CODE 


18 


4-Dec- 


■ 81 


34 


Code 


< UNUSED > 


10 






52 




ABC 


4 


1-Feb- 


-82 


62 


Data 


MYFILE.CODE 


12 


1-Sep- 


■81 


66 


Code 


STATIC. TEXT 


8 


9-Jun- 


■81 


78 


Text 


LETTER. TEXT 


18 


9-May- 


■81 


86 


Text 


TESTDCC.TEXT 


20 


1-Sep- 


• 80 


104 


Text 


FILERDOC1.TEXT 


24 


1-Sep- 


■80 


124 


Text 


< UNUSED > 


32 






148 





8/8 files, 42 unused, 32 in largest 

If you know that the file STATIC.CODE was six blocks long and was located just 
after the file FILERDOC1.TEXT, you can recreate it. First, use the M(ake command 
to create a file named FILLER, with a size specification of 10 blocks, to fill up the 
10-block unused space on the diskette. Next, create STATIC.CODE with a size 
specification of six blocks. Finally, use the R(em command to remove FILLER from 
the directory. The resulting directory listing is as follows. 



MVDISK: 












FILERDCC2.TEXT 


28 


5-Oct- 


■80 


6 


Text 


ABC. CODE 


18 


4-Dec- 


■81 


34 


Code 


< UNUSED > 


10 






52 




ABC 


4 


1-Feb- 


■82 


62 


Data 


MVFILE.CODE 


12 


1-Sep- 


■81 


66 


Code 


STATIC. TEXT 


8 


9-Jun- 


-81 


78 


Text 


LETTER. TEXT 


18 


9-May- 


■81 


86 


Text 


TESTDCC.TEXT 


20 


1-Sep- 


■80 


104 


Text 


FILERDCC1.TEXT 


24 


1-Sep- 


■ 80 


124 


Text 


STATIC.CODE 


6 


1 -Ma r • 


■ 82 


148 


Code 


< UNUSED > 


26 






154 




9/9 files, 36 unused, 


26 in 


1 ar 


ges t 





Remember that, to be able to execute a codefile, it must be created with a .CODE 
suffix. If you lose a codefile that does not have a .CODE suffix, such as 
SYSTEM.EDITOR, first use the M(ake command to recreate the file with a .CODE 
suffix (EDITOR.CODE), and then use the C(hng command to change its name back (to 
SYSTEM.EDITOR). 



FILER 

Page 55 



RECOVERING LOST DATA 



The UCSD p-System Utilities software package contains two programs designed to 
assist you in file recovery. They are RECOVER and PATCH. 

The RECOVER utility can help you if you can't remember or determine where the file 
was located on the diskette. RECOVER scans the directory for entries that may be 
valid filenames. If the search doesn't find the desired file, RECOVER scans the 
entire diskette for areas which resemble .TEXT or .CODE files and asks you if it 
should attempt to recreate the files. RECOVER is described in detail in the UCSD 
p-System Utilities manual. 

If you think that a directory entry is incorrect, use the PATCH utility to examine the 
exact contents of the directory. Also, use PATCH to examine a particular block on 
a diskette to determine whether or not it is part of a lost file. PATCH is described 
in detail in the UCSD p-System Utilities manual. 



6.2 LOST DIRECTORIES 

If you use the E(xt-dir or L(dir commands and specify an output file and your output 
specification is a disk volume without a filename, the disk directory is destroyed. 
For example, if you type MYDISK:,MYDISK: in response to the "Dir listing of ?" 
prompt, the Filer overwrites the first few blocks of MYDISK: with a listing of its 
own directory. 

First, use the T(rans command to transfer MYDISK: to an output device. This 
provides you with a list of the MYDISK: directory. Next, use the Z(ero command to 
erase the directory. The Z(ero command does not alter the contents of any files on 
MYDISK:, only the contents of the directory itself. Finally, use the M(ake command 
to restore all the directory entries. Note: This method may not work if the 
directory listing was not extended and unused areas exist between files. 

Recovering a lost directory is simplest when the diskette contains a duplicate 
directory which was not destroyed. A directory spans blocks 2-5 on a disk; if a 
duplicate directory exists, it occupies blocks 6-9. Each time the original directory is 
modified the duplicate directory is updated as well, thus providing a convenient 
backup. 



FILER 

Page 56 



RECOVERING LOST DATA 



Two methods are available for putting duplicate directories on all your diskettes. 
The first is to use the Z(ero command when first creating a diskette with the Filer. 
When the "Duplicate dir ?" prompt appears, press Y. The second method is to use 
the MARKDUPDIR utility (see below). 

The Utilities software package also contains two programs to help you prevent lost 
directory problems. These programs are COPYDUPDIR and MARKDUPDIR. 

If the directory is lost on a diskette that has a duplicate directory, use the 
COPYDUPDIR utility to move the duplicate directory to the location of the original 
disk directory. This is usually all the recovery that is necessary. 

If a diskette is already in use and contains only one directory, use the MARKDUPDIR 
utility to create a duplicate directory. You must exercise caution when using 
MARKDUPDIR because blocks 6-9 of the diskette (the location of the duplicate 
directory) must be unused, or file information is lost. 

COPYDUPDIR and MARKDUPDIR are fully described in the UCSD p-System Utilities 
manual. 



FILER 

Page 57 



SECTION 7: IN CASE OF DIFFICULTY 



1. Be sure that the diskette you are using is the correct one. Use the L(dir (list 
directory) command in the Filer to check for the correct diskette or program. 

2. Ensure that your Memory Expansion unit, P-Code peripheral, and Disk System 
are properly connected and turned on. Be certain that you have turned on all 
peripheral devices and have inserted the appropriate diskette before you turn 
on the computer. 

3. If your program does not appear to be working correctly, end the session and 
remove the diskette from the disk drive. Reinsert the diskette, and follow the 
"Set-Up Instructions" carefully. If the program still does not appear to be 
working properly, remove the diskette from the disk drive, turn the computer 
and all peripherals off, wait 10 seconds, and turn them on again in the order 
described above. Then load the program again. 

4. If you are having difficulty in operating your computer or are receiving error 
messages, refer to the "Maintenance and Service Information" and "Error 
Messages" appendices in your Users' Reference Guide or UCSD p-System 
P-Code manual for additional help. 

5. If you continue to have difficulty with your Texas Instruments computer or the 
UCSD p-Sytem Filer package, please contact the dealer from whom you 
purchased the unit or program for service directions. 



FILER 

Page 58 



THREE-MONTH LIMITED WARRANTY 
HOME COMPUTER SOFTWARE MEDIA 



Texas Instruments Incorporated extends this consumer warranty only to the original 
consumer purchaser. 

WARRANTY COVERAGE 

This warranty covers the case components of the software package. The components 
include all cassette tapes, diskettes, plastics, containers, and all other hardware 
contained in this software package ("the Hardware"). This limited warranty does not 
extend to the programs contained in the software media and in the accompanying 
book materials ("the Programs"). 

The Hardware is warranted against malfunction due to defective materials or 
construction. THIS WARRANTY IS VOID IF THE HARDWARE HAS BEEN 
DAMAGED BY ACCIDENT OR UNREASONABLE USE, NEGLECT, IMPROPER 
SERVICE OR OTHER CAUSES NOT ARISING OUT OF DEFECTS IN 
MATERIAL OR CONSTRUCTION. 

WARRANTY DURATION 

The Hardware is warranted for a period of three months from the date of original 
purchase by the consumer. 

WARRANTY DISCLAIMERS 

ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES ARISING OUT OF THIS SALE, INCLUDING 
BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF 
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, ARE 
LIMITED IN DURATION TO THE ABOVE THREE-MONTH PERIOD. TEXAS 
INSTRUMENTS SHALL NOT BE LIABLE FOR LOSS OF USE OF THE 
HARDWARE OR OTHER INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL COSTS, 
EXPENSES, OR DAMAGES INCURRED BY THE CONSUMER OR ANY OTHER 
USER. 

Some states do not allow the exclusion or limitation of implied warranties or 
consequential damages, so the above limitations or exclusions may not apply to you in 
those states. 



FILER 

Page 59 



LEGAL REMEDIES 

This warranty gives you specific legal rights, and you may also have other rights that 
vary from state to state. 

PERFORMANCE BY TI UNDER WARRANTY 

During the three-month warranty period, defective Hardware will be replaced when it 
is returned postage prepaid to a Texas Instruments Service Facility listed below. The 
replacement Hardware will be warranted for a period of three months from date of 
replacement. TI strongly recommends that you insure the Hardware for value prior 
to mailing. 

TEXAS INSTRUMENTS CONSUMER SERVICE FACILITIES 

Texas Instruments Service Facility Geophysical Services Incorporated 

P. O. Box 2500 41 Shelley Road 

Lubbock, Texas 79408 Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada L4C5G4 

Consumers in California and Oregon may contact the following Texas Instruments 
offices for additional assistance or information. 

Texas Instruments Consumer Service Texas Instruments Consumer Service 

831 South Douglas Street 6700 Southwest 105th 

El Segundo, California 90245 Kristen Square, Suite 110 

(213) 973-1803 Beaverton, Oregon 97005 

(503) 643-6758 



FILER 

Page 60 



IMPORTANT NOTICE OF DISCLAIMER REGARDING THE PROGRAMS 

The following should be read and understood before purchasing and/or using the 
software media. 

TI does not warrant the Programs will be free from error or will meet the specific 
requirements of the consumer. The consumer assumes complete responsibility for any 
decisions made or actions taken based on information obtained using the Programs. 
Any statements made concerning the utility of the Programs are not to be construed 
as express or implied warranties. 

TEXAS INSTRUMENTS MAKES NO WARRANTY, EITHER EXPRESS OR 
IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES 
OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, 
REGARDING THE PROGRAMS AND MAKES ALL PROGRAMS AVAILABLE 
SOLELY ON AN "AS IS" BASIS. 

IN NO EVENT SHALL TEXAS INSTRUMENTS BE LIABLE TO ANYONE FOR 
SPECIAL, COLLATERAL, INCIDENTAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES IN 
CONNECTION WITH OR ARISING OUT OF THE PURCHASE OR USE OF THE 
PROGRAMS AND THE SOLE AND EXCLUSIVE LIABILITY OF TEXAS 
INSTRUMENTS, REGARDLESS OF THE FORM OF ACTION, SHALL NOT 
EXCEED THE PURCHASE PRICE OF THE SOFTWARE MEDIA. MOREOVER, 
TEXAS INSTRUMENTS SHALL NOT BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM OF ANY 
KIND WHATSOEVER BY ANY OTHER PARTY AGAINST THE USER OF THE 
PROGRAMS. 

Some states do not allow the exclusion or limitation of implied warranties or 
consequential damages, so the above limitations or exclusions may not apply to you in 
those states. 



FILER 

Page 61 



„ 






Texas Instruments 

INCORPORATED 



Texas Instruments invented the integrated circuit, 

the microprocessor, and the microcomputer. 

Being first is our tradition.